Prostate Cancer Metastasis

Sunday, June 1st 2014. | Cancer

Prostate Cancer Metastasis

Prostate Cancer Metastasis is a cancer of the prostate gland, an organ that forms a ring around the urethra, near its connection to the bladder. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. It is also called metastatic prostate cancer. PCM isnt curable, but hormon therapy cpuld keep it under control.
 
More commonly prostate cancer metastasis can occur in the:
 
  • Bones
  • Lymph nodes
  • Lungs
  • Liver
  • Brain
 
Rare locations of prostate cancer metastasis include:
 
  • Adrenal glands
  • Breasts
  • Eyes
  • Kidneys
  • Muscles
  • Pancreas
  • Salivary glands
  • Spleen
 
 
Prostate Cancer Staging is a system used to describe the size, aggressiveness, and spread of a cancer. A cancer’s stage helps to guide treatment and can help predict the chance of curing the cancer.
 
Additionally there is some overlap with pre-biopsy imaging assessment using Prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PIRADS).
 
 
TNM staging
 
Primary tumour staging (T)
 
1. T1 – not palpable via DRE or seen using TRUS
  • T1a – cancer found incidentally during TURP – less than 5% of the gland
  • T1b – cancer found incidentally but over 5% of the gland is involved
  • T1c – found by needle biopsy for a raised PSA
2. T2 – palpable on DRE, but confined to the prostate
  • T2a – less than half of one side of the gland 
  • T2b – more than half of one side
  • T2c – cancer on both sides of the prostate
3. T3 – spread outside the prostate
  • T3a – tumour has extended outside of the prostate on one side.
  • T3b – tumour has extended outside of the prostate on both sides.
  • T3c – tumour has invaded one or both of the seminal vesicles, which are small bag-like organs near the bladder
4. T4 – spread into the adjacent tissues
e.g. bladder spincter, rectum or pelvic side wall
 
 
Nodal status (N)
 
On CT a 1 cm short axis diameter cut off is used if its purely on size grounds 7.
 
  • N0 – no spread to lymph nodes
  • N1 – one or more nearby lymph nodes involved
 
Metastases (M)
 
  • M0 – no spread beyond regional lymph nodes
  • M1 – spread beyond local nodes
  • M1a – distant lymph nodes outside the pelvic
  • M1b – bony metastasis
  • M1c – other organ involvement independant of bony involvement
e.g. lungs, liver, brain 
 
 
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