Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

Sunday, September 14th 2014. | Disease

The spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) includes the classic venereal disease gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinalas well as a variety of other pathogens known to be spread by sexual contact.  std


Associated Pathogens

   Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae
   Syphilis Treponema pallidum
   Chancroid Hemophilus ducreyi
   Granuloma inguinale Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
   Enteric disease Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter fetus
   Campylobacter infection Campylobacter jejuni
   Bacterial vaginosis Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Bacteroides spp., Mobiluncus spp.
   Group B streptococcal infections Group B Streptococcus
   Nongonococcal urethritis Chlamydia trachomatis
   Lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis, type L
   Acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus
   Herpes genitalis Herpes simplex virus, types I and II
   Viral hepatitis Hepatitis A, B, C, and D viruses
   Condylomata acuminata Human papillomavirus
   Molluscum contagiosum Poxvirus
   Cytomegalovirus infection Mycoplasmal Cytomegalovirus
   Nongonococcal urethritis Protozoal Ureaplasma urealyticum
   Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis
   Amebiasis Entamoeba histolytica
   Giardiasis Fungal Giardia lamblia
   Vaginal candidiasis Parasitic Candida albicans
   Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei
   Pediculosis pubis Phthirus pubis
   Enterobiasis Enterobius vermicularis

Selected Syndromes Associated with Common Sexually Transmitted Pathogens


Commonly Implicated Pathogens

Common Clinical Manifestationsa

Urethritis Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum Urethral discharge, dysuria
Epididymitis C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae Scrotal pain, inguinal pain, flank pain, urethral discharge
Cervicitis/vulvovaginitis C. trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis Abnormal vaginal discharge, vulvar itching/irritation, dysuria, dyspareunia
Genital ulcers (painful) Hemophilus ducreyi, herpes simplex virus Usually multiple vesicular/pustular (herpes) or papular/pustular (H. ducreyi) lesions that may coalesce; painful, tender lymphadenopathyb
Genital ulcers (painless) Treponema pallidum Usually single papular lesion
Genital/anal warts Human papillomavirus Multiple lesions ranging in size from small papular warts to large exophytic condylomas
Pharyngitis C. trachomatis (?), herpes simplex virus, N. gonorrhoeae Symptoms of acute pharyngitis, cervical lymphadenopathy, feverc
Proctitis C. trachomatis, herpes simplex virus N. gonorrhoeae, T. pallidum Constipation, anorectal discomfort, tenesmus, mucopurulent rectal discharge
Salpingitis C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae Lower abdominal pain, purulent cervical or vaginal discharge, adnexal swelling, feverd
aFor some syndromes, clinical manifestations may be minimal or absent. bRecurrent herpes infection may manifest as a single lesion. cMost cases of pharyngeal gonococcal infection are asymptomatic. dSalpingitis increases the risk of subsequent ectopic pregnancy and infertility.